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Gum diseases may be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is surely an inflammation in the gingivae (gums) in all age brackets but manifests more often in kids and the younger generation.

Periodontitis can be an inflammation with subsequent destruction with the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent loss in teeth. This problem mainly manifests at the begining of mid-life with severity increasing from the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state within an individual.

Gum diseases have been located to become the most widespread chronic diseases all over the world using a prevalence of between 90 and 100 % in grown-ups over 35 yrs . old in developing countries. It has recently been confirmed to be the reason behind referred to as in individuals 40 years and above.

Bad breath is one of the major consequences of gum diseases.

Many of the terms that are greatly associated with terrible breath and gum diseases are listed below:

Dental Plaque- The primary dependence on the prevention and treatment of a disease is definitely an knowledge of its causes. The primary source of gum diseases is bacteria, which form a complicated around the tooth surface called plaque. These bacteria’s will be the cause of halitosis bad breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations for the teeth or other solid oral structures. If it is of sufficient thickness, it seems like being a whitish, yellowish layer mainly across the gum margins on the tooth surface. Its presence can also be discerned by a conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping the tooth surface over the gum margins.

When plaque is examined under the microscope, it reveals numerous different types of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells can also be present. The micro-organisms detected vary in line with the site where they’re present.
There are gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes or even small variety of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are normally covered by a skinny layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle allows for the selective adherence of bacteria for the tooth surface.

Throughout the initial few hours, the bacteria proliferate to make colonies. Furthermore, other organisms may also populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to create a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The information present relating to the bacteria is named intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 per cent of the plaque volume. This matrix is mainly extra cellular carbohydrate polymers produced by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small amounts of plaque are suitable for gingival or periodontal health. Many people can resist larger numbers of plaque for lengthy periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction in the supporting tissues) whilst they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation with the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play an essential part in plaque formation by modifying just how much and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation will be, there will be more smelly breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation simply because they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolic process also provide the raw materials (substrate) for your manufacture of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque is the responsible for gum diseases, a number of others deemed secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or affect the response of gum tissue to plaque. The local factors are:

1) Cavities within the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (false teeth);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Cigarette smoking.

The systemic factors which potentially modify the gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders yet others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and ascorbic acid and B deficiency.

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Austin Tolstoy

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